First, we’ll look at what follows the comma, the main verb for the sentence:
(A) “would make there be fewer teachers”—while this uses “fewer” correctly, this is way too casual and informal; this has no place in the formal writing of the GMAT. This choice is incorrect.
(B) “would result in the amount of teachers going down”—teachers are countable, so we need to use “number of teachers,” not “amount of teachers.” This choice is incorrect.
(C) “would have the result of decreasing the number of teachers”—grammatically correct, but very long
(D) “would result in a reduction of the number of teachers”—grammatically correct and more elegant
(E) “would decrease teachers”— very terse, but unclear in meaning; it seems to imply that the plan will make less of teachers as human beings, somehow “decreasing” their essential humanity! This is a sloppy and imprecise way to say what the sentence is trying to say. This choice is incorrect.
We are left with (C) & (D). Both are grammatically correct. Choice (C) is long, rambling, indirect, and excessively wordy: it combines a number of very poor rhetorical choices.
Choice (D) is clear, direct, and elegant. We don’t need a verb between “if” and “approved” because an “it is” is implied.
Choice (D) is mistake free and is the best answer here.
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